A tumor is a complex organ consisting of many cell types. Localization of gene expression alteration to specific cell types provides the first link to cellular function. The pursuit of personalized medicine through technologies like microarrays and next-generation sequencing has generated a wealth of novel biomarkers, which promise to improve cancer diagnosis and patient stratification. However, for many of these biomarkers, we do not know which of the cell types in the tumor expresses them. This limits our ability to fully understand their biological relevance. Furthermore, clinically relevant changes in gene expression in specific cell types may be lost in RNA extraction-based methods such as microarrays and RT-PCR.
RNAscope®’s single-molecule sensitivity for detecting RNA while preserving tissue context with single-cell resolution makes it easy to pinpoint which biomarker is expressed in which cells, all at the convenience of a conventional brightfield or standard fluorescence microscope. Direct visualization of gene expression at the RNA level in single cells can provide unique insight into the interplay between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment during cancer progression. Thus, RNAscope® can serve as a powerful alternative to immunohistochemistry (IHC), filling the long-standing gap in in situ detection of RNA.
In addition to cancer tissue analysis, RNAscope® is poised to contribute to the emerging field of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which have been dubbed a noninvasive “liquid biopsy” for many solid tumors. The unprecedented high-fidelity signal amplification and multiplexing capability of RNAscope® make it possible to simultaneously detect and characterize CTCs in the background of millions of blood cells. The minimal need for CTC enrichment allows the unbiased detection of the highly heterogeneous CTCs present even within the same patient sample. Since RNA is rapidly lost in apoptotic and dead cells, RNAscope® has the unique discriminatory ability to detect only viable CTCs, which are likely to be a more relevant indicator of disease progression during patient follow-up.
RNAscope® joins IHC and DNA FISH to complete the in situ tool set for cancer researchers to discover, develop and implement a new generation of tissue- and cell-based diagnostics, which will be integral to the promise of personalized medicine.
- RNAscope® HD Single-plex
- RNAscope® Chromogenic Duplex
ACD offers> 700 cancer RNA biomarker probes for human, mouse, rat and other species
Publications with RNAscope Technology in Cancer Research Applications
2014 Publications in Cancer Research Applications
1. A collagen-remodeling gene signature regulated by TGF-β signaling is associated with metastasis and poor survival in serous ovarian cancer.
Cheon et al. (2014).
PMID: 24218511 |
2. A collagen-remodeling gene signature regulated by TGF-β signaling is associated with metastasis and poor survival in serous ovarian cancer.
Cheon et al. (2014). Clin Cancer Res. Feb 1; 20(3):711–723.
PMID: 24218511 |
3. Possible role of Cdx2 in the serrated pathway of colorectal cancer characterized by BRAF mutation, high-level CpG Island methylator phenotype and mismatch repair-deficiency.
Dawson et al. (2014). Int J Cancer. May 15;134(10):2342-51.
PMID: 24166180 |
4. In situ Tumor PD-L1 mRNA expression is associated with increased TILs and better outcome in breast carcinomas.
Schalper et al. (2014) Clin Cancer Res. Mar 19.
PMID: 24647569 |
5. The PAS positive material in gastric cancer cells of signet ring type is not mucin. Sørdal et al. (2014) Exp Mol Pathol. Feb 28. pii: S0014-4800(14)00023–9.
PMID: 24589859 |
6. Utility of PAX8 mouse monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of thyroid, thymic, pleural, and lung tumors: a comparison with polyclonal PAX8 antibody.
Toriyama et al. (2014)Histopathology. Mar 4.
PMID: 24592933 |
7. Programmed death ligand-1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Velcheti et al. (2014). Lab Invest. 2014 Jan;94(1):107-16.
PMID: 24217091 |
8. Application of circulating tumor cells scope technique on circulating tumor cell research.
Yang et al. (2014). Molecular and Cellular Therapies 2014, 2:8
2013 Publications in Cancer Research Applications
9. Monitoring Tumorigenesis and Senescence In Vivo with a p16 INK4a Luciferase Model.
Burd et al. (2013). Cell, 152(1), 340–351.
PMID: 23332765 |
10. The utility of immunohistochemistry for providing genetic information on tumors. Chan et al. (2013). International journal of surgical pathology, 21(5), 455–475.
PMID: 24065374 |
11. Cell-Autonomous and Non–Cell-Autonomous Mechanisms of HGF/MET–Driven Resistance to Targeted Therapies: From Basic Research to a Clinical Perspective
Corso, S, Giordano, S (2013). Cancer discovery, 3(9), 978–992.
PMID: 23901039 |
12. Validation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma candidate genes from high-throughput transcriptomic studies.
Du Q et al. (2013). American journal of cancer research, 3(4), 402.
13. The effects of unilateral truncal vagotomy on gastric carcinogenesis in hypergastrinemic Japanese female cotton rats.
Fossmark et al. (2013). Regulatory peptides, 184:62–67.
PMID: 23499800 |
14. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 as a putative therapy target in colorectal cancer.
Göke et al. (2013). Digestion. 88(3):172–181.
PMID: 24135816 |
15. Distribution of LGR5+ Cells and Associated Implications during the Early Stage of Gastric Tumorigenesis.
Jang BG, Lee BL, Kim WH. (2013). PLoS One, 8(12):e82390.
PMID: 24340024 |
16. In situ analysis of HER2 mRNA in gastric carcinoma: comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization, dual-color silver in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry.
Kim et al. (2013).Human pathology, 44(4):487–94.
PMID: 23084583 |
17. Cited1 Deficiency Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis.
Méniel et al. (2013). PLoS genetics, 9(8), e1003638.
PMID: 23935526 |
18. Deregulation of the cell polarity protein Lethal giant larvae 2 (Lgl2) correlates with gastric cancer progression.
Nam et al. (2013). Gastric Cancer, 1–11.
19. The long noncoding RNA SChLAP1 promotes aggressive prostate cancer and antagonizes the SWI/SNF complex.
Prensner et al. (2013). Nature genetics, 45(11):1392–1398.
PMID: 24076601 |
20. Pin1 modulates ERα levels in breast cancer through inhibition of phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation.
Rajbhandari et al. (2013). Oncogene. 2014 Mar 13;33(11):1438-47.
PMID: 23542176 |
21. Cyclin D1—a prognostic marker in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that is tightly associated with high-risk human papillomavirus status.
Scantlebury et al. (2013). Human pathology, 44(8):1672–1680.
PMID: 23566410 | .
22. High Heregulin Expression is Associated with Activated HER3 and May Define an Actionable Biomarker in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck.
Shames et al. (2013). PLoS One, 8(2), e56765.
PMID: 23468880 |
23. A mouse model of chronic prostatic inflammation using a human prostate cancer-derived isolate of Propionibacterium acnes.
Shinohara et al. (2013).Prostate, 73(9):1007–1015.
PMID: 23389852 |
24. Myeloid cell receptor LRP1/CD91 regulates monocyte recruitment and angiogenesis in tumors.
Staudt et al.. (2013).Cancer research, 73(13):3902–12.
PMID: 23633492 |
25. Ultrasensitive RNA In Situ Hybridization for Detection of Restricted Clonal Expression of Low-Abundance Immunoglobulin Light Chain mRNA in B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders.
Tubbs et al. (2013). American journal of clinical pathology, 140(5):736–746.
PMID: 24124155 |
26. REG gene expression in inflamed and healthy colon mucosa explored by in situ hybridisation.
Van Beelen Granlund A et al. (2013). Cell and tissue research, 352(3):639–646.
PMID: 23519454 |
27. Automated Quantitative RNA in situ Hybridization for Resolution of Equivocal and Heterogeneous ERBB2 (HER2) Status in Invasive Breast Carcinoma.
Wang et al. (2013). The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 15(2), 210–219.
PMID: 23305906 |
28. Evaluation of tissue PCA3 expression in prostate cancer by RNA in situ hybridization—a correlative study with urine PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG.
Warrick et al. (2013). Modern Pathology, Sep 27.
PMID: 24072184 |
29. In situ validation of an intestinal stem cell signature in colorectal cancer.
Ziskin et al. (2013). Gut, 62(7), 1012–1023.
PMID: 22637696 |
2012 Publications in Cancer Research Applications
30. Quantitative in situ measurement of estrogen receptor mRNA predicts response to tamoxifen.
Bordeaux et al. (2012). PLoS One, 7(5):e36559.
PMID: 22606272 |
31. Viable circulating tumour cell detection using multiplex RNA in situ hybridisation predicts progression-free survival in metastatic breast cancer patients.
Payne et al. (2012).British journal of cancer, 106(11), 1790–1797.
PMID: 22538972 |
32. From morphologic to molecular: established and emerging molecular diagnostics for breast carcinoma.
Portier et al. (2012). New Biotechnology, 29(6), 665–681.
PMID: 22504737 |
33. RNAscope: a novel in situ RNA analysis platform for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.
Wang, et al.. (2012). The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 14(1), 22–29.
PMID: 22166544 |